Dystonia a neurological condition where muscles contract involuntarily. It can occur anywhere in the body, including the muscles of the arms, legs, trunk, or face, and appears as repetitive, twisting movements and unnatural posture. Nearly half of patients with MSA experience dystonia. Dystonia in MSA predominantly affects the head and neck area in a form called antecollis, which accounts for one-quarter of all dystonia in MSA patients, with dystonia in one limb being present in over 20% of patients studied. Both of these types of dystonia, when present, can affect balance and walking in MSA patients. Dystonia can also affect the face and mouth, affecting speech. If dystonia affects the vocal cords, obstructive sleep apnea can result.
1. Non-pharmacologic treatment of dystonia in MSA include:
2. Pharmacologic treatment of dystonia in MSA include: